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Maintenance of marine heat exchanger

The only thing to note about marine heat exchangers is to ensure that the heat transfer surfaces should be kept basically clean, and the flow channels are usually free of obstacles. The gradual increase in temperature difference between the two fluids and the change in pressure indicate that scaling has occurred.
Seawater pollution is the most common cause of reduced performance. The method of cleaning the side of the seawater depends on the type of sediment and heat exchanger. Soft deposits can be removed by brushing. For stubborn deposits, immersion or in situ chemical cleaning is recommended.
When using a shell and tube heat exchanger, the end cover is removed, or in the case of a smaller heat exchanger, the header itself will provide access to the piping. Then, the tools provided by the heat exchanger manufacturer can be used to remove obstacles, dirt and scale. It is recommended to rinse with fresh water before putting the heat exchanger into service.
In oil coolers or heaters, the outside of the tube may gradually become fouled. The manufacturer may recommend using chemical flushing to remove this situation on-site without disassembling the heat exchanger.
Clean the plate heat exchanger by loosening the plate stack and exposing the surface. The surface of the board is carefully cleaned with a brush or processed according to the manufacturer's recommendations to avoid damage. If the plate seal needs to be replaced, it can be removed using the method described in the plate cooler section.
Due to the bonding of the seals (for example, using sharp tools), they will be worn and will cause damage to the plate. Seawater corrosion can sometimes cause perforation of heat transfer surfaces, causing one fluid to leak into another. Generally, seawater is kept at a lower pressure than jacket water and other liquids it cools to reduce the risk of seawater entering the engine compartment. If the header or drain tank is automatically filled or manual filling is not reported, the leak is not always detected initially.
The rapid loss of lubricating oil or jacket water and the operation of the low level alarm will cause a large amount of leakage.
The location of the leak in the shell and tube cooler is simple. First isolate the heat exchanger from its system, then drain the seawater and remove the end caps or headers to expose the tube sheet and tube ends, and then check if there is liquid seeping or seeping from around the tube ends or holes. tube. If the surface is clean and dry, it will help smaller leaks.
Before removing the cover or header, the fixture of the tube bundle should be checked to ensure that the internal liquid does not move out of the tube bundle. This precaution also emphasizes the need to isolate the cooler from the system. To help detect leaks in large coolers (such as the main condenser), in this case, it is difficult to dry the tube enough to see any leakage, and it is usually necessary to add special fluorescent dyes on the shell side of the cooler . When ultraviolet rays are irradiated on the test tube, the dye will emit light, so you can see the leak of the test tube plate.
Leaks in the plate heat exchanger can be found by visual inspection of the plate surface, or they can be cleaned and sprayed with fluorescent dye penetrant on one side. Then look at the other side with the help of ultraviolet light to show any defects. Leakage of the charge air cooler will cause sea water to flow to the engine cylinder. This may be a problem in four-stroke engines because salt scales are easily formed on the intake valve shaft, which can cause them to stick. Regularly check the charge air manifold discharge port for salt water. The location of the leak can be achieved by applying a very low air pressure on the air side and checking the submerged seawater side for bubbles. Soapy water can be used instead of submerging seawater.
If the ship is not to be used for a long time, it is recommended to drain the seawater side of the heat exchanger first, then rinse and rinse with fresh water, and then drain the heat exchanger, if possible, until the ship re-enters service.
Exhaust and drainage
It is important that all heat exchangers through which sea water flows are filled. In a single-pass heat exchanger with a shell-and-tube or plate type vertical installation, if the seawater flows upward, it will be automatically exhausted. The same is true for horizontally installed heat exchangers with single-channel or multi-channel tube arrangements, provided that the seawater inlet branch faces downward and the outlet branch faces upward. With these arrangements, when the rest of the system is drained, the water will be almost completely discharged from the heat exchanger.
With other arrangements, when seawater is first introduced into the heat exchanger, and then periodically opened to ensure that any air is purged and the seawater side is full, the exhaust cock installed at the highest point of the heat exchanger should be opened. An oil drain plug should be installed at the lowest point.
Heat transfer theory
The heat flow rate from a higher temperature fluid to a lower temperature fluid through a heat exchanger tube or plate is related to the temperature difference between the two fluids and the ability of the tube or plate material. Conducting electricity and the area and thickness of the material.
If both fluids are not moving, the conductivity of the fluid must also be considered, and under static conditions, one fluid will lose heat and the other will increase heat, so the temperature difference will decrease, which will gradually decrease Slow heat transfer rate. There is a slow-moving liquid on either side of the jacket cooler heat exchange surface, if the hotter fluid receives heat from a stable source (for example from a cylindrical water jacket), and a continuous heat source can provide a constant temperature difference . Cooler fluid (circulated from the sea).

Laminar flow occurs in the slowest liquid at the highest speed in the center of the liquid path, and gradually slows toward the containing surface. Static boundary layers tend to form on the containment surface, and the heat flow through such layers depends on the conductive capacity of the layer. Faster moving layers also absorb heat mainly through conductivity.

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Jiangyin M&C Heat Parts Co.,LTD worked in the field of the world marine plate heat exchanger markets, possesses over 5 years of experience in a multitude of marine Projects, serves ships trading in the all corners of the globe, manufactures and distributes spare parts for the offshore and onshore industry, uses state of the art technology in its activities.